Once again, I found myself randomly reading through Facebook only to see on a Friend's page, somebody making another statement about being opposed to seeing same-gender couples rule together in the SCA because it "just didn't happen in history."
Honestly, I don't know what annoys me more - the fact that that once again, people make this a sticking point in a club that is notorious for NOT following history when it comes to choosing our leaders?
Or is it the fact that I can totally understand why someone would make such an incorrect statement - because that is what 99.9% of the history classes in the US teach us.
In all honesty, I would have to say the latter. Why? Because, believe it or not, there was a time when I too was dead set AGAINST the idea of same-gender pairs because I too believed that there just was no historical precedence. Boy was I wrong!
Just because I don't believe there is such a thing as sharing knowledge enough, I am here going to cross-post some information from a document on the Inspirational Equality list compiled by my dear hubby. This is not a complete list. But it presents different times, different cultures, and different scenarios where yes indeedy, we would see cases of same-gender rule. Please feel free to peruse, distribute discuss...
Same-Gender Rulers In Europe:
In Medieval France a paréage or pariage was a feudal treaty recognising joint sovereignty over a territory by two rulers, who were on an equal footing, pari passu… On a familial scale, paréage could also refer to the equal division of lands and the titles they brought between sons of an inheritance. Such a power-sharing contract could be signed between two secular rulers or, most usually, by a secular and an ecclesiastic ruler, as in the case of the most famous, the Acte de paréage of 1278 that founded a legal basis for the Principality of Andorra, signed by the comte de Foix and viscomte de Castellbo and the Bishop of Urgel. The Count and the Bishop were to receive taxes in alternate years, to appoint local representatives to administer justice jointly, and should forbear to make war within Andorra, where each might levy soldiers, nevertheless. (from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Par%C3%A9age#cite_note-1
, citing Whittlesey, Derwent (June 1934). "Andorra's Autonomy". The Journal of Modern History 6 (2): 147–155. JSTOR article available via http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/236113
c. 971 - 931 BCE Realm: Judah & Israel Rulers: David & Solomon
RowNumber Year Country Rulers Notes
1. c. 971 - 931 BCE Judah & Israel David Solomon At least one coregency is explicitly documented in the Bible: the coronation of King Solomon occurred before the death of his father David. David ordered the crowning of Solomon, and after the coronation said “Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, who hath given one to sit on my throne this day, mine eyes even seeing it.'”1 Kings 1: 43-48 David continued to reign for some time, and counseled Solomon prior to his death, recorded in 1 Kings 2: 1-10
2. c. 700 BCE – 221 BCE Sparta Agiad king Eurypontid king It was also found in Sparta with two Kings. The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontids families (Sparta and Lakonia By Paul Cartledge), both supposedly descendants of Heracles and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the veto of his colleague. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparta http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Kings_of_Sparta
3. 238 Roman Empire Gordian I Gordian II Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised by the accession of Gordian III. April 238 AD. Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors
4. 284 - 305 ad Roman Empire Diocletian Maximian Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 AD. … neither Diocletian nor his co-emperor, Maximian, spent much time in Rome after 286, establishing their imperial capitals at Nicomedia and Mediolanum (modern Milan), respectively.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_Emperors
5. 161 ad – 169 ad Roman Empire Lucius Verus Marcus Aurelius Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until death
6. 161 – 169 Roman Empire Marcus Aurelius Lucius Verus Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Lucius Verus until 169 AD
7. 177-180 Roman Empire Marcus Aurelius Commoddus joint emperor with Commodus (his Natural son) from 177 AD
8. 198 – 217 AD Roman Empire Caracalla co-emperor with his father Septimus Severus from 198 AD; with Severus and Geta from 209 AD until February 211 AD; co-emperor with Geta until December 211 AD
9. 238 AD Roman Empire Pupienus Maximus
Balbinus, later Gordian III
Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus and Gordian III
10. 249 – 251 AD Roman Empire Decius Herennius Etruscus
11. 251 – 253 AD Roman Empire Trebonianus Gallus
12. 930 - 933 Norway Harald Fairhair
Eirik Bloodaxe Norway: Eirik Bloodaxe was the co-monarch with his father Harald Fairhair from 930–933 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_I_of_Norway
13. 1278 – Present Andorra Bishops of Urgell
Counts of Foix (later Kings of France, then Presidents of France) The Principality of Andorra, in the Pyrenees Mountains on the French–Spanish border, was established in 1278 by the Treaty of Joint Suzerainty between the Catalan Bishop of Urgell and the Occitan Counts of Foix, whose descendants inherited Navarre in 1479 and then the French monarchy in 1589. These Princely rights and the duumvirate have been continued under the executive heads of the various monarchies in France, most recently under the French Republics. Hence even today, France's elected head of state also becomes the Co-Prince of Andorra, the other Co-Prince still being the Bishop of Urgell. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Co-Princes_of_Andorra
14. 1243-present San Marino Captain Regent Captain Regent The Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) of San Marino are elected every six months by the country's Grand and General Council. The pair serve as heads of state and government. Normally the Regents are chosen from opposing parties. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year. The practice of dual heads of government is derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic, equivalent to the consuls of ancient Rome. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Marino
15. 939 the Italian principality of Capua-Benvenuto The New Cambridge Medieval History notes, "On one occasion, very briefly in 939-40, this meant that there were no less than four persons using the princely title: Landulf I, two of his sons and his younger brother, Atenulf II.")
16. 688- c. 988 Cyprus Justinian II Abd al-Malik In 688 the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II and the Arab Caliph Abd al-Malik reached an unprecedented agreement to establish a condominium … over Cyprus, with the collected taxes from the island being equally divided between the two parties. The arrangement lasted for some 300 years, despite the fact that in the same time there was nearly constant warfare between the two parties on the mainland.
This agreement lasted until 965 when Emperor Nikiforos Fokas regained Cyprus completely for the Byzantines.
17. Valdemar Denmark 1218 – 1231 Valdemar had a son, Valdemar, whom he elevated as co-king at Schleswig in 1218. Unfortunately, Prince Valdemar was accidentally shot while hunting at Refsnæs in North Jutland during 1231.
18. 1010-1012 Norway Eiríkr Hákonarson Sveinn Hákonarson from Eiríkr Hákonarson was the co-regent with his half-brother 1010–1012 .
19. 1012 - 1015 Norway Håkon Eiriksson Sveinn Hákonarson
Hakon co-regent with his grandfather from 1012–1015 .
20. 1045 - 1047 Norway Harald III Hardrada Magnus the Good co-monarchs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_the_Goodhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Hardrada
21. 1067 1069 Norway Magnus Haraldsson
Olaf III the peaceful
co-monarchs; sons of Harald III Hardradahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_II_of_Norwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olaf_III_of_Norway
22. 1093 – 1094 Norway Håkon Magnusson
23. 1130 – 1135 Norway Magnus the Blind
24. 1136 – 1161 Norway Sigurd Mouth
Øystein Haraldsson (til 1157) and Inge Hunchback, (till 1161) Three brothers; shared the throne after their father's death in 1136. Each brother was on the throne until his death. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigurd_II_of_Norwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inge_I_of_Norwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eystein_II_of_Norway
25. 1170 France Henry II Henry the Young King Henry, the second (and then oldest surviving) son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was crowned king by the Archbishop of York. He is generally known as Henry the Young King; since he died before his father, he never reigned alone.
26. 1183 Jerusalem Baldwin Baldwin Guy was removed from the regency and his five-year-old son, King Baldwin's nephew and namesake Baldwin, was crowned as co-king in November.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Jerusalem
27. 1017-*1025 France Robert II Hugh (II) Magnus of France (French: Hugues le Grand) (1007 – 17 September 1025) was co-King of France under his father, Robert II, from 1017 until his death in 1025.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Magnus_of_France
28. 1326 - 1330 Germany (Kingdom of the Romans) Frederick I the Fair of Austria
Louis the Bavarian
coregency of the Kingdom of Germany (cited in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coregency
29. 1165-1493 Friesland Counts of Holland
Prince-bishops of Utrecht,
Countship of Friesland (West Frisia), since 1165 under Imperial administration, was from 1165 to 1493 a joint condominium of the Count of Holland and the Prince-bishop of Utrecht, then again till 25 October 1555 under Imperial administration (Mentioned in Wiki Coregency article; unable to find other documentaton.)
30. 1200 – 1499(?) City of Maastricht bishops of Liège
dukes of Brabant
Co-dominium : Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority, with both the bishops of Liège and the dukes of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city. The city of Maastricht was under the joint jurisdiction (parage) of the duke of Brabant and the prince-bishop of Liège. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maastricht
31. ?? – 814 Denmark Reginfrid Anulo, Hemming,
Harald Reginfrid or Ragnfrid (died 814) was a co-King of Denmark from 812, when Hemming I died, to 813, when he and his brothers were ousted by the sons of the previous king, Gudfred. He was probably a son of Halfdan, a Danish leader who became a vassal of Charlemagne in 807, and brother of Anulo (died 812), Hemming (died 837), and Harald Klak (died c.852). He was probably related to the Danish king he succeeded. On Hemming's death only Reginfrid and Harald were present in Denmark and they had to recall their brother Hemming from Francia. In 813 the sons of Gudfred invaded the kingdom and drove out the three co-rulers. Only Reginfrid tried to regain the kingdom, but was killed in an attempted invasion in 814, as recorded in the Annales regni Francorum.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reginfrid
32. 345 - 361 Iberia Rev II Mirian III Rev II was a prince of Iberia who functioned as a co-king to his father Mirian III, the first Christian Georgian ruler. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rev_II_of_Iberia
33. 787 Mercia Offa Ecgfrith Offa had Higbert consecrate his son Ecgfrith of Mercia co-king with him. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synod_of_Chelsea
Ecgfrith (died December 796) was a King of Mercia who briefly ruled in the year 796. He was the son and heir of King Offa of Mercia and his wife Cynethryth. In 787, Offa had Ecgfrith crowned as co-ruler. He succeeded his father in July 796, but despite Offa's efforts to secure his son's succession, it is recorded that Ecgfrith ruled for only 141 days. Since Offa died either on July 26 or July 29, this would mean that Ecgfrith died either on December 14 or December 17. Ecgfrith was the first Anglo-Saxon king to receive a Christian consecration as part of his coronation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecgfrith_of_Mercia
34. ?? - 664 Tara Diarmait Colman Diarmait mac Áedo Sláine, Co-king of Tara, died 664. Áed Sláine himself is said to have been High King jointly with Colmán Rímid of the northern Cenél nEógain branch of the Uí Néill, following the death of Áed mac Ainmuirech.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarmait_mac_%C3%81edo_Sl%C3%A1ine
35. ? - 529 Thuringia Baderic Hermanfrid,
Berthar Baderic, Baderich, Balderich or Boderic (ca. 480 – 529), son of Bisinus and Basina, was a co-king of the Thuringii. He and his brothers Hermanfrid and Berthar succeeded their father Bisinus. After Hermanfrid defeated Berthar in battle, he invited King Theuderic I of Metz to help him defeat Baderic in return for half of the kingdom. Theuderic I agreed and Baderic was defeated and killed in 529. Hermanfrid became the sole king.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baderic
36. 1151 – 1155 Italy Hugh William At Easter 1151, Hugh crowned William , son of Roger II , co-king at Palermo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_(Archbishop_of_Palermo
37. 1147 Germany Conrad Henry Conrad named Henry as co-king in March 1147 and had him crowned on 30 March in Aachen. Henry was groomed for the succession. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Berengar
38. 813 - 814 Acquitaine, HRE Charlemagne Louis Charlemagne crowned his son Louis the Pious as co-emperor of Francia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious
39. 891 France Sigifrid Godafrid An 891 entry of the Annales Fuldenses mentions Sigifrid killed along with his co-ruler Godafrid. Their deaths are also mentioned in the "Gesta quorundam regum Francorum". The name of the co-ruler suggests he was also a member of the family line.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Klak
Pictish co-kings (can’t find any documentation for these)
510 - 522 Galan Arilith / Galanan Erilich
728 Alpin I & Drest VII of Atholl
Ivan V of Russia born Sept. 6, 1666, Moscow, Russia — died Feb. 8, 1696, Moscow) Nominal tsar of Russia (1682 – 96).When his brother Tsar Fyodor III died, Ivan, a mentally deficient chronic invalid, was proclaimed coruler with his half brother Peter I, with Ivan's sister Sophia as regent. After Sophia's overthrow in 1689, Ivan was allowed to retain his official position, though he never participated in governmental affairs, devoting the bulk of his time to prayer, fasting, and pilgrimages.